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LIBRARY – http://wp.me/P1lCBV-fh

MURRAY BOOKCHIN. MARXISM AS BOURGEOIS SOCIOLOGY
http://is.gd/lBAXfJ

…Marx’s work is not only the most sophisticated ideology of state capitalism but it impedes a truly revolutionary conception of freedom. It alters our perception of social issues in such a way that we cannot relevantly anchor the revolutionary project in sexual relations, the family, community, education, and the fostering of a truly revolutionary sensibility and ethics. At every point in this enterprise, we are impeded by economistic categories that claim a more fundamental priority and thereby invalidate the enterprise at its outset …

Domination becomes admissible as a “precondition” for liberation, capitalism as a “precondition” for socialism, centralization as a “precondition” for decentralization, the state as a “precondition” for communism…

There is nothing in the social future to suggest that bureaucracy is incompatible with a classless society, the domination of women, the young, ethnic groups or even professional strata…

…Before “man” began to exploit “man”, he began to dominate woman; even earlier, the old began to dominate the young through a hierarchy of age-groups, gerontocracies, and ancestor-worship. Power of human over human long antedates the very formation of classes and economic modes of social oppression […] It is no longer simply capitalism we wish to demolish; it is an older and more archaic world that lives on in the present one – the domination of human by human, the rationale of hierarchy as such…

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Professoriat | Bookchin

…If there is a reasonable amount of peace in the academy today, it is due not only to the careerism of students in an economically precarious world, but the careerism of their “radical” professors in an academically tight market. The “professoriat” has become an interest in its own right and strategically tends to function more as a safety valve for student dissent than a stimulus — a fact which more intelligent conservatives appreciate only too well…

…a strangely symbiotic relationship exists between the academic Right and its leftist counterparts: a few scholarly Marxists are not only a sine qua non for a sophisticated college curriculum, but departments, even control of academic journals and societies, are divided between Right and Left with an unspoken understanding that the stability of a university, even the effective control of the student body, depends upon a delicate balance of forces between the two and a “pluralism” that replaces intellectual stimuli by paralysis …

…Socialism has become an industry and its literary works are commodities. They are often vended by ambitious careerists who have long traded away their political ideals for their professional status. The “New Left” has aged badly. It lives in spiteful hatred of its own youth and in fear of a revival of student militancy, a revival that may jeapardize its academic positions and peer recognition… [1985]
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BOOKCHIN. POST-SCARCITY ANARCHISM [p. 36]
http://keimena11.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/bookchin_post-scarcity-anarchism-1970.pdf


CASTORIADIS. THE HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION – http://is.gd/WElpJo

…in Hungary, the movement of the masses was so powerful and so radical that both the Communist party and the whole existing state apparatus were literally pulverized in a few days…

The exemplary character of the Workers’ Councils—which sprang up almost everywhere in a matter of hours—does not stem from their proletarian composition, from their origin in productive enterprises, or even from the Council form as such. Rather, their importance lies in (a) the establishment of direct democracy (true political equality); (b) their rootedness in existing concrete collectivities (including, but not limited to, the factories); and (c) their demands concerning self-management and the abolition of work norms…

…When I speak about the autonomy of the organizations of the masses, I do so only because and in so far as they do not accept the established institution of society. This means in the first place, that they do not accept any other source of legitimate power outside themselves; and in the second place, that they abolish, within themselves, the division between those who direct and those who execute…

…political representation tends to “educate” people in the conviction that they are unable to manage the problems of society, that there exists a particular category of men endowed with the specific ability to govern. Permanent representation therefore goes with professionalized politics. It contributes to political apathy which in turn widens the gap between the extent and the complexity of social problems and their own ability to tackle them…

…According to the Council form of organization, all decisions have to be taken—in principle, and whenever possible—by the whole collective; that is, by the General Assembly of the Council’s constituency (be it factory, administration, university or district). A body of delegates ensures the implementation of the decisions of the General Assembly and the continuity of its direction between meetings. These delegates are elected and are permanently revocable… The important point is that the power of decision rests with the General Assembly—which can reverse the decisions of the delegates…

…neither the power of General Assemblies, nor the revocability and accountability of delegates is a panacea capable of guaranteeing that a degeneration of the Revolution — bureaucratic or otherwise—is impossible. The ultimate fate of the Councils, or any other such organization, depends on the self-activity of the people; on what they will and will not do; on their involvement in the life of the collective; and on their readiness to bring their full weight to bear within the processes of discussion, elaboration, decision, implementation and control…

…What is involved here is the de-professionalization of politics — i.e., the abolition of politics as a special and separate sphere of activity—and, conversely, the universal politicization of society, which means just that: the business of society becomes, quite literally, everybody’s business…

http://keimena11.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/castoriadis_the_hungarian_revolution_1_.pdf

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Castoriadis. Socialism and Autonomous Society

«…To be able to decide… is not only to be able to decide about “current affairs”, to participate in a state of affairs considered sacrosanct. Autonomy signifies giving oneself one’s law. And we are speaking here of “formal” and “informal”, common or shared laws, namely, institutions.To participate in power is to participate in instituting power. It is to belong, in equality with others, to a collectivity that self-institutes itself explicitly.

Freedom in an autonomous society is expressed by these two fundamental laws:
No execution [of decisions] without egalitarian participation in the making of the decisions; and
No law without egalitarian participation in the positing of the law.

An autonomous collectivity has for its motto and self definition: “We are those whose law is to give ourselves our own laws”…»


MARX. The German Ideology – http://goo.gl/fe91L
Ruling Class and Ruling Ideas

«The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas. . . the dominant material relationships grasped as ideas; hence of the relationships which make the one class the ruling one, therefore, the ideas of its dominance. . . The individuals composing the ruling class. . . rule also as thinkers, as producers of ideas, and regulate the production and distribution of the ideas of their age. . .
[The ruling class] represents its interest as the common interest of all the members of society. . . it has to give its ideas the form of universality, and represent them as the only rational, universally valid ideas…»



CASTORIADIS. The Imaginary Institution of Society – http://is.gd/PkWtpJ

«…Marx knew that “the Apollo of Delphi was in the life of the Greeks a power as real as any other”. . . When he stressed that the memory of past generations weighed heavily on the consciousness of the living, he pointed once more to this peculiar mode of the imaginary manifest in the past lives as present, where ghosts are more powerful than men of flesh and blood, where the dead clasp the living, as he liked to say.
And when Lukács … says that the mystified consciousness of capitalists is the condition for the adequate functioning of the capitalist economy — in other words, that the laws can be realized only by “using” the illusions of individuals — he again shows that one of the conditions of functionality lies in a specific imaginary. . .
in an alienated society, the dominant class is itself in a situation of alienation. . . it cannot mystify the rest of society with its ideology without at the same time mystifying itself…»


Maurice Brinton. THE IRRATIONAL IN POLITICS
http://is.gd/nWPGIF
…For rulers to continue ruling it is necessary that those at the bottom of the social ladder not only accept their condition, but eventually lose even the sense of being exploited. Once this psychological process has been achieved the division of society becomes legitimised in peoples’ minds. The exploited cease to perceive it as something imposed on them from without. The oppressed have internalised their own oppression. They tend to behave like robots, programmed not to rebel against the established order.
The robots may even seek to defend their subordinate position, to rationalise it and will often reject as ‘pie-in-the-sky’ any talk of emancipation. They are often impermeable to progressive ideas. Only at times of occasional insurrectionary outbursts do the rulers have to resort to force, as a kind of reinforcement of a conditioning stimulus…


http://is.gd/wIJXL3 {PDF}

STANLEY MILGRAM. OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY

Around 1962, Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted a series of social psychology experiments, to measure the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure. In a situation staged under a scientific pretext, the subject was manipulated to accept as an obligation to induce painful electric shocks to a third person, under the instructions of a “scientist”.

«…the most fundamental lesson of our study: ordinary people, simply doing their jobs, and without any particular hostility on their part, can become agents in a terrible destructive process. Moreover, even when the destructive effects of their work become patently clear, and they are asked to carry out actions incompatible with fundamental standards of morality, relatively few people have the resources needed to resist authority. A variety of inhibitions against disobeying authority come into play and successfully keep the person in his place…

§ George Orwell caught the essence of the situation when he wrote : As I write, highly civilized human beings are flying overhead, trying to kill me. They do not feel any enmity against me as an individual, nor I against them. They are only “doing their duty,” as the saying goes. Most of them, I have no doubt, are kind-hearted law abiding men who would never dream of committing murder in private life. On the other hand, if one of them succeeds in blowing me to pieces with a well- placed bomb, he will never sleep any the worse for it…

§ Although a person acting under authority performs actions that seem to violate standards of conscience, it would not be true to say that he loses his moral sense. Instead, it acquires a radically different focus. He does not respond with a moral sentiment to the actions he performs. Rather, his moral concern now shifts to a consideration of how well he is living up to the expectations that the authority has of him. In wartime, a soldier does not ask whether it is good or bad to bomb a hamlet; he does not experience, shame or guilt in the destruction of a village: rather he feels pride or shame depending on how well he has performed the mission assigned to him… »
[ελληνικα http://is.gd/ULtb0W ]


Emmanuel Reynaud. HOLY VIRILITY.
The social construction of masculinity

http://keimena11.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/emmanuel-reynaud-holy-virility-the-social-construction-of-masculinity-1981.pdf

…Whatever the biological differences between males and females may be, they should not mask the fact that the division into men and women is purely social. From the minute a child is born, it is assigned to a sex category, according to its possessing a penis or a vulva. A person’s entire identity develops on the basis of this sexual differentiation and through identification within that category; to such an extent that what has been imposed eventually seems natural. The category is so well assimilated that to question it would be to run the risk of being confronted with a vacuum ― “If I am not a man, what am I; Who am I?”

And so when it is a question of ‘male’ and ‘female’ roles, we are not dealing with a role played here and there in such and such a situation, but with a real shell which the person has completely adopted, and which has been gradually built up during an existence governed by the differences between the sexes…

… Patriarchy generally succeeds in deceiving people; even though our daily lives are governed by it, many people only see it in distant lands or remote periods of history. The forms through which it is articulated today, private or state capitalism, can disguise its own mechanisms of oppression and exploitation. But whatever the particular modes of production it secretes, patriarchy is characterised first and foremost by the division of humans into sexes, which is expressed by the appropriation of women and the struggle for power among men…


CASTORIADIS – http://is.gd/201300

…modern capitalist societies, whether ‘democratic’ or dictatorial, are always totalitarian. To maintain itself the domination of the exploiters must invade all fields of human activity and attempt to control them. Totalitarianism may no longer take the extreme forms it did under Hitler or Stalin. It may no longer use terror. Basically this changes nothing, for terror is but one of the means that can be used to break down all opposition. It is not always applicable nor does it always yield the best results. ‘Peaceful’ manipulation of the masses and the gradual assimilation of all organized opposition can be just as effective…



…the organization of production today, whether in Britain or in France, in the USA or in the USSR, is class organization. Technology is predominantly class technology… Machines are invented, or selected, according to one fundamental criterion: do they assist in the struggle of management against workers, do they reduce yet further the worker’s margin of autonomy? … The conscious transformation of technology will be one of the crucial tasks confronting socialist society…

…Education today… by the school or by the family, aims at producing people adapted to the present type of society. It corrupts the human sense of integration into society which it transforms into a habit of subservience to authority… of worshipping the status quo. It imposes a meaningless pattern of work which separates, dislocates and distorts physical and mental potentialities. The more education of the present type is supplied, the more of the present breed of man will be produced, with slavery built into him…

http://keimena11.files.wordpress.com/2014/02/castoriadis_the_meaning_of_socialism_1960.pdf
{GR}
http://keimena11.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/castoriadis_socialism.pdf
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Conformist Subservience | Noam Chomsky
http://www.chomsky.info/interviews/20031028.htm

…Hans Morganthau – a much respected scholar – once harshly condemned what he called our conformist subservience to those in power. He was referring to the intellectual classes in the United States and the West generally. And it’s a comment that is reasonably accurate and goes back through recorded history: the respected intellectuals in virtually every society are those who are distinguished by their conformist subservience to those in power. Others who take elementary human responsibilities seriously tend to suffer overwhelmingly in one form of repression or another[…]
…if people are willing to undertake their responsibilities seriously, then a better world is very possible. Unfortunately […] those who have every opportunity in front of them, every kind of privilege, quite typically throughout history tend to be subordinate to power… It’s the people that live under repression and deprivation and face serious penalties and lack privilege who are working hard to build a better world…
[…]
what intimidates people is not the police, but the defamation. Any serious departure from the conformist subservience to those in power is dealt with tantrums, lies, and endless vilification. Lies repeated long enough become truths and you become a holocaust denier and other things.
[…]
The US has vetoed resolutions calling on all states to observe international law. It vetoed the Security Council resolution affirming the World Court judgment which condemned the US for pronounced international terrorism. No one mentions this, nobody knows it, it’s not part of anyone’s consciousness. You go into the faculty club or the editorial offices and people will never have heard about it. That’s what it means to have extreme power and a very subservient intellectual class. Exactly as Morgenthau pointed out – it’s out of history, it didn’t happen…

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